Retarding Potential Analyzer – HPEPL

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A Retarding Potential Analyzer directly measures ion energy distribution by quantifying their ability to migrate across a biased grid. Three other grids provide shielding from the plasma and repulsion/suppression of electrons.

Xu, K. G., Walker, M. L. R., “Plume Characterization of an Ion Focusing Hall Thruster,” AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, San Diego CA, August 2011.

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